heating event. I further suggest that all following monopole events were shorter in time frame. The PETM was due to the cessation of the monopole cycle and the reemergence of the dipolar cycle. I suggest the emissions were radioactive, along with the loosening the atomic structure that is indicative of the dipole cycle.
Was this 65 my event stronger in its effects that previous monopole onsets? Except for the 225 my event. Was the 225 my event the initiator of the cycle that subsequent blowouts followed? If it was, what could have caused it? Is there a deep scar in the sun’s conveyor belt cycles that only appears at far apart intervals?
The time of the cycling loop would have to encompass the expanded Earth.
Well, what do you think? Is the Earth core upon solar monopole release an electron gun?
Looks just like the Russian hole on the Kola Peninsula in the 2014 news, doesn’t it?
It is time to revisit SW Carey’s Expanding Earth theory.
Note the reference to the changing heat and pressure:
As for the admission above that the cause of expansion is unknown, may I suggest it is our sun, Sol.
Our sun is a magnetar, expending energy since its implosion from Beetle Sun, and offing the dirty metalized gas which became rocky planets in the former space of the Beetle Sun.
The initial energy was from the equator of the sun exclusively, when sufficient energy has been expended, then it emitted briefly from the polar regions, and has since increased its emissions from the polar regions and decreased its emissions from the solar equator.
Our solar equatorial emissions are now known as a ‘delayed magnetic reversal.’
Rare mineral holding water
Giant crystals evidence of loosening pressure
Hydrogen under pressure becomes metalized and super conducting
Many interesting facts gleaned from phys.org that indicate problems with our current model.
What happens when comets, asteroids, etc enter our inner system from the distance of the Oort shell? Perhaps it depends on how low our planetary energy is, that is whether or not the Earth is experiencing a monopole cycle of the sun and the level of that energy. Perhaps if Earth experiences a solar body from outside the inner system, the Earth could take on the magnetic orientation of that body. Would this then be the source of Earth’s past magnetic reversals?
Perhaps: the monopole recedes, the energized hot core radiates, the Earth surface heats but more importantly, the dipole sun then ruling is lower energy than the monopole and does not hold the atomic nucleus tightly as the monopole sun. Everything is in expansion, as it is now just orders of energy lower.
The future is Mars
Note here it says finding of 2x amount of silicon over previous estimates
Note this article says that the weakness of the iron core is responsible for the change in crystal structure over time.
Berkely Lab Advanced Light Source
The researchers estimated that iron’s strength is around 1 gigapascal at the pressure and temperature at the Earth’s core. This low value has implications for how the material in the core deforms, or “creeps,” over time. Previous models assumed that this creep was a very slow process, based mostly on diffusion of atoms. However, a lower strength for iron means that creep could occur through the movement of defects, or “dislocations,” in the crystal structure. This faster dislocation creep would imply that the observed seismic-wave anisotropy developed relatively early in the Earth’s history.
Both the Earth and the Moon ‘ring like bells’ due to this liquid interior shell.
Moon with a liquid core.
Unfortunately they propose water originated outside Earth, seeped inside and is returned.
Inside our Mars-sized core is an inner-inner core 375 miles wide
The fact that Earth’s internal magnetic field changes slowly, over a timescale of decades, means that the electromagnetic force responsible for pushing the inner and outer cores will itself change over time. This may explain fluctuations in the predominantly eastwards rotation of the inner core, a phenomenon reported for the last 50 years by Tkalčić et al. in a recent study published in Nature Geoscience.
Other previous research based on archeological artefacts and rocks, with ages of hundreds to thousands of years, suggests that the drift direction has not always been westwards: some periods of eastwards motion may have occurred in the last 3,000 years. Viewed within the conclusions of the new model, this suggests that the inner core may have undergone a westwards rotation in such periods.
The authors used a model of Earth’s core which was run on the giant super-computer Monte Rosa, part of the Swiss National Supercomputing Centre in Lugano, Switzerland. Using a new method, they were able to simulate Earth’s core with an accuracy about 100 times better than other models. END
Notice how the refrain of ‘ revised from previous estimates’ usually means weaker, lesser, looser.
This is to be expected as the result of our dying magnetar sun, Sol, can inflict the monopole cycle on Earth on a year or so out of 10. This brief period known as a ‘delayed magnetic reversal’ on Earth. Only during this ephemeral blink of Sol is there evidence of tightening in the atomic structure.
May I propose that our smarter selves understood this, investigated it by observing the Algol system, and the pyramid structures were the result in an effort to keep the resonance from dropping below their life requirements.
Science now understands the lack of pressure keeps us from obtaining fusion. Experiments at this distance from the sun cannot keep the core from displaying instability which keeps fusion from happening. Exactly because Sol has weakened to the point of not providing sufficient energy. I propose that occurred about the end of the last Ice Age. That is when we lost sufficient energy from the sun in its monopolar cycle (see NASA a star with two poles) to sustain fusion on the surface.
What is happening in the core? Well, look at Mercury’s core. Massive. Look at Earth. Shrinking. The core is loosening its atomic structure. The evidence shows that our core is a shadow of its former self.
Researchers at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., analyzing three years of radio tracking data from the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft, concluded that Mars has not cooled to a completely solid iron core, rather its interior is made up of either a completely liquid iron core or a liquid outer core with a solid inner core. Their results are published in the March 7, 2003 online issue of the journal Science.
In addition to detection of a liquid core for Mars, the results indicate the size of the core is about one-half the size of the planet, as is the case for Earth and Venus, and that the core has a significant fraction of a lighter element such as sulfur.
Maven NASA touchdown Sept 21 in time for comet Siding Spring
Venus is oft said to have been ‘resurfaced’ 1/2 billion years ago, No. Venus actually stopped being a continually resurfaced planet 1/2 billion years ago. The revision of that statement is ongoing and so confuses people.
The absence of evidence of lava flow accompanying any of the visible caldera remains an enigma. The planet has few impact craters, demonstrating the surface is relatively young, approximately 300–600 million years old.
The lack of an intrinsic magnetic field at Venus was surprising given it is similar to Earth in size, and was expected also to contain a dynamo at its core. A dynamo requires three things: a conducting liquid, rotation, and convection. The core is thought to be electrically conductive and, although its rotation is often thought to be too slow, simulations show it is adequate to produce a dynamo. This implies the dynamo is missing because of a lack of convection in the Venusian core. On Earth, convection occurs in the liquid outer layer of the core because the bottom of the liquid layer is much hotter than the top. On Venus, a global resurfacing event may have shut down plate tectonics and led to a reduced heat flux through the crust. This caused the mantle temperature to increase, thereby reducing the heat flux out of the core. As a result, no internal geodynamo is available to drive a magnetic field. Instead, the heat energy from the core is being used to reheat the crust.
One possibility is that Venus has no solid inner core, or that its core is not currently cooling, so that the entire liquid part of the core is at approximately the same temperature. Another possibility is that its core has already completely solidified. The state of the core is highly dependent on the concentration of sulfur, which is unknown at present.
I propose the core of Venus is solid much like Mercury, and will, with the fall of energy due to the monopole cycle of Sol, pass from a super conducting solid core to one with liquid edges that may begin a dynamo like action.
The previous examples use the solid core as an end-stage product and that is not correct.
The liquid core is an end stage due to the planet lacking energy input from the solar monopole cycle and being exclusively exposed to dipolar energy that allows looseness and dispersion of atomic structures.
Venus’ lack of Argon-40 and oxygen is more indicative of the near-continual maintenance of the heated interior produced by the monopole cycle of the sun, now almost vanished from Earth.
I propose that Venus has yet to begin a life cycle which will only occur when the heated interior falls and EDEN reigns until the monopole cycle begins again. While the monopole solar cycle fosters life, it is too much of a good thing initially. Life struggles to survive through the energy bath, and as the monopole exposure lessens, like here on Earth, life begins to thrive. But the balancing act of monopole/no monopole is a very narrow window in time. As the monopole fades, the atomic structures begin to loosen and wander. You may infer by this that life is ephemeral on the planets of Sol.
Expansion would have happened early in Earth’s history, when the monopolar cycle of our sun was longer and stronger. As the previous continental masses show, they came together faster and lasted longer. We were lucky an earlier blast out that created the Moon precipitated the thin lithosphere, allowing the crust to crack and move. Had that not been the case, Earth would have repeated the catastrophe of planet Aztec, the asteroid belt, named by S W Carey.
Currently our continents move ever more slowly, having little energy impetus from our magnetar Sol. So slowly in fact that science cannot see how the continents could have moved into their present positions, much less have come together and separated 3x.
The expansion would have been the result of initial energy from a monopole cycle exhausting itself outward, leaving heat from the core to disseminate upward, with the dipole cycle then ruling and allowing the heated materials to expand.
Mars is our future.
We are down to the last 375 miles of Earth’s core which I predict will continue to disintegrate by the absence of Sol’s monopole cycle.
I do not understand binding energy and my theory above claims that the liquid core of planets has LESS energy than the remaining solid core; it proposes the solid core is utilized to produce the energy that heats the core resulting in a diminishment of the solid core and an increase in the liquid core. I have no proof of this, other than the interpretation of existing information.
George Gamow liquid drop model does not explain the magic numbers of 2, 8, 20 etc.
The neutrons shell themselves spherically while the other neutron numbers fail to do so, resulting in misshapen oblongs. Loose, in other words. Can this be connected to the sun’s magnetar cycle of monopolarity which draws and collects which is almost negligible at the present time?
In a pear-shaped nucleus, the asymmetric nuclear forces push the protons away from the center, so the ratio of the densities of neutrons and protons are different as you move from one side of the nucleus to the other.[3-4] This result is important, since it might allow detection of a new nuclear force, one that explains the abundance of matter over antimatter in the universe.
Do bad things happen during such field reversals? Scientists have found no extinction events, and they have determined that the Earth’s magnetic field decreased by just 5% during the short (440 year) Laschamp reversal event that occurred 41,400 ± 2,000 years ago. To more closely study Earth’s magnetic field, the European Space Agency has launched its Swarm constellation of three identical satellites, two of which are in an initial 460 km orbit, and the third is in a higher, 530 km orbit. The orbits are designed to optimize measurement accuracy. The first observations were presented at the Third Swarm Science Meeting, Copenhagen, Denmark, on June 19, 2014.[3-4] Six months of observations have shown a weakening of Earth’s field over the Western Hemisphere, a field increase at the southern Indian Ocean, and a migration of the North magnetic pole towards Siberia (see figure). These data may indicate an imminent geomagnetic reversal, imminent meaning the usual timescale for such a reversal, hundreds of years.[3-4]
|Left, the ESA Swarm satellite constellation. Note that the magnetometers are attached to long booms to distance them from the magnetic influence of the satellite body. The right image shows changes in the Earth’s magnetic field from January to June, 2014, with red indicating an increase and blue indicating a decrease. Click for larger map image. (left image, Copyright ESA/AOES Medialab; right image, Copyright ESA/DTU Space.)|
These field changes are an order of magnitude greater than a previous estimate of five percent per century. Now, it’s more like 5% per decade. The Sawrm data are expected not only to generally characterize Earth’s field, but also as a means to predict earthquakes. I wrote about earthquake prediction in some previous articles (A Century of Earthquake Prediction Possibilities, October 4, 2013 and Earthquake Prediction, January 16, 2013).
Note the proposed impact site that is claimed to separate the continent; India shoved North into the Himalaya, Australia spun East, Antarctica South and the shock wave West passed under Africa. Note especially this site is now the highest increase of magnetic field strength.
Further note that this may been seen as a continuous track across the face of the globe.
This original site of injury is analogous to a solar CME which leaves a ‘footprint’ on the solar hemispheric conveyer belt which then dives into the sun only to travel the loop to arrive at the surface carrying the residual energy footprint which develops again into a CME. Here we see evidence of the same conveyer belt on Earth.
We see behind the large magnetically strong anomaly the former site of the anomaly, the South Atlantic Anomaly. Behind it we see the evidence of a blow out at the Cayman Trench and the adjoining Sargasso Sea magnetic anomaly, known as the Bermuda Triangle.
Tracking further behind is the western coast of US
newgeology.us theory explains the original crack in the world.
|Alaska is projected to have been flung across the ocean to impact NA. Ending the previous temperate climate. An earlier event:
Together, these features suggest a path for East Antarctica represented by the shaded area below. Note that the Shock Dynamics event happened much later, and thrust new landmasses and features into the western part of the shaded area, such as the Izu-Bonin and Marianas Trenches, Japan, parts of Asia and Southeast Asia, Australia, New Zealand, the Tonga-Kermadec Trench, etc. The Emperor-Hawaiian chain is also associated with the Shock Dynamics event, in particular the movement of Alaska along the line of the Aleutian Trench.
Eddy currents (I, red) induced in a conductive metal plate (C) as it moves to right under a magnet (N). The magnetic field (B, green) is directed down through the plate. From Lenz’s law the increasing field at the leading edge of the magnet (left) induces a counterclockwise current, which creates its own magnetic field (left blue arrow) directed up, which opposes the magnet’s field, producing a retarding force. Similarly, at the trailing edge of the magnet (right), a clockwise current and downward counterfield is created (right blue arrow) also producing a retarding force.
|When a conductor moves through an inhomogeneous field generated by a source, electromotive forces (EMFs) can be generated around loops within the conductor. These EMFs acting on the resistivity of the material generate a current around the loop, in accordance with Faraday’s law of induction. These currents dissipate energy, and create a magnetic field that tends to oppose changes in the current- they have inductance.
Perhaps the cause of the loop that carries the ‘footprint’ of the catastrophic event?
As the initial blast would have tracked East, a likely site would be New Zealand. The last land to be settled by humans.
58 million y old fossilized bird bones found in remnant of Zealandia cum New Zealand.
The plateau also hosts the country’s largest lake, Lake Taupo, nestled in the caldera of one of the world’s most active supervolcanoes. The country owes its varied topography, and perhaps even its emergence above the waves, to the dynamic boundary it straddles between the Pacific and Indo-Australian Plates. New Zealand is part of Zealandia, a microcontinent nearly half the size of Australia that gradually submerged after breaking away from the Gondwanan supercontinent.[14
This track also appears at odds with the Equator, perhaps we are a planet that has tilted approximately 23 degrees. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Axial_tilt from this initial injury.
I propose that the 65 my old extinction event occurred at the site of newgeology.us theory.
I propose that the sun had entered a monopole cycle that energized the core, aiding and abetting the life that had languished since the disappearance of the previous monopole cycle. Life is different under a monopole sun. Tighter, stronger, more synchronized atomic structure. I suggest the period of the monopole was most likely the 9 million years until the PETM
Earth is 375 miles from Mars.
The West where the diamonds come from
Yakutia was getting near its present position to the east of Europe then attached to the north end of the great continent of Pangea, 250 million years ago.
Yakutia was passing slowly over a hot spot on the Earth’s crust, when possibly an asteroid impacted in the ocean other side of the Earth. The shock waves caused a massive surge under the weakness in the Earth’s crust tearing what is now the west of Yakutia and central Siberia apart with volcanic eruptions and flows of lava over a vast area – nearly 4 million square kilometres, called the Siberian Traps (see above diagram).
Dust thrown in the air blotted the sun’s warming rays for at least a million years, causing an ice age and triggering off other major climatic disturbances and geological events. Methane released under the seas killed marine life.
The huge continent – even larger as it became joined by what was now becoming the continent of Asia, turned into an icy desert. About 90 per cent of the existing life on Earth, plants and animals died. It was the biggest extinction event the Earth has suffered.
- some evidence has been found to indicate this.
- summary of Horizon programme
- whether this massive volcanic activity was triggered by impact has been disputed there is not enough evidence and the mass extinctions took place over more than a million years – and could have resulted from the effects of the volcanic activity of the Siberian traps over such a long period of time.
- Article with diagram.
- Article on the Siberian traps with diagram (copied above) showing the extent.
As surviving life evolved to cope with the changing climatic conditions, the first warm blooded animals emerged. Western Siberia became seamed to Europe down the Ural Mountains and more of Asia attached itself to the south of Siberia, thrusting up mountains and the gold within them.
The massive eruptions to the west of Yakutia left a rich legacy of diamonds – Yakutia is the second largest producer of diamonds in the world.
North to the Arctic Ocean
East of the River Lena are mountains. This is a much faulted disturbed region. About 100 million years ago, a great volcanic rift started to split what is now Africa from South America, and continued north to push apart North America and Greenland from Europe. (Leaving a bit of Newfoundland on top of Scotland).
The Atlantic ocean was formed and continues to spread apart a few centimetres each year, along the central volcanic ridge which can be seen on the surface where it passes through Iceland.
It does not stop at Iceland. This massive fault creating new ocean floor and land, continues as the Gakkel Ridge (diagram right) across the Arctic Ocean to hit the continental shelf in the Laptev Sea, off the coast of Yakutia east of the Lena Delta.
This fault continues across the continent, west of the river Lena. It creates the mountain ranges of the Kolyma region – throwing up gold as it does so. It reaches the Pacific ocean at Okhotsk. This forms a corner. For the fault splits two ways, across the bay of Okhotsk, one end continuing down to Sakhalin and Japan to meet the Pacific. It also joins the seam which marks the south of Siberia, to which the southern part of Asia is joined.
This creates a complex geology. Since the contents of America and Eurasia were being pushed apart on the other side of the globe, by the time the fault crosses Yakutia, it cannot push them apart for they have to go somewhere so this marks the boundary where the continents of Eurasia and America are pushing against and thrusting past each other. This can be seen in the relief map (right) showing earthquakes from 1990 to 2000.
The eastern part of Yakutia and Northern Asia is actually part of the North American plate.
All this complex seismic activity has thrown up valuable minerals, the most famous being gold, in the east and southern parts of Siberia. More on the gold mines and the Gold.
Diring Yuryakh – and the first Siberians
Diring Yuryakh was, the first place I was taken to, on my first visit to Yakutia. This is quite appropriate as it is one of the oldest sites of human habitation in Siberia. It is by the shores of the river Lena just south – about 140 km. – of Yakutsk. This important archaeological site has been excavated since 1982, under the supervision of Yuri Mochanov and his wife Svetlana.
The excavated site is approached up a steep climb and near the top of the hill is a horse’s hitching post – as found in every Yakutian town. The carved horse’s hitching post is a symbolic monument and part of the Yakutian religion.
Interest in the site was sparked off by the discovery of the body of a five year old boy in a stone coffin dated to about three and a half thousand years ago. Further excavations uncovered jewellery and other artefacts in burial grounds, including a man with an arrow through him.
But the most exciting finds were far older than these. The Diring Yuryakh site is made up of layers of sandy alluvial terraces which can be dated, and were first laid down, 2.5 to 3.4 million years. Primitive stone tools were found, in layers dating back some 1.8 to 2.5 million years.
In the last two million years – the time associated with the evolution of humans, the Earth’s climate became colder than before, and fluctuating more widely that before. Sudden bursts of global warming, are followed by a longer ice-age, when the temperatures are much colder than today.
The existence of ice wedges in the strata where the early stone tools were once left on the ground, shows that although it was a time of global warming, when the tools were made and used, the winters were freezing as they are today.
This region basks in hot summers – when I was there in July 1993, the afternoon temperature was a baking 36 degrees Celsius. But extremely cold winters. Even today with global warming, minus 40 degrees Celsius is normal – and it can be lower.
This has important implications. The oldest traces of permafrost at Diring Yuryakh can be linked with the general fall in temperature on Earth about 2.2 to 2.5 million years. Early humans at Diring Yuryakh must have developed sufficient technology to survive freezing winters. Humans cannot survive long at an average temperature less than 20 degrees Celsius, without adequate clothing, shelter and a source of heat.
As Mochanov pointed out, to survive in this place, humans would have needed technology to make warm clothing, light a fire, build secure homes, and hunt purposefully for food, to a more advanced level of development than that necessary for survival in warmer climates. The challenge of surviving severely cold winters would have been an important stimulus for cognitive technological development.
Extensive use of the hands for tool making and then crafts, developed the brain. The use of our hands occupies a large part of our brain. Neotony – the retention of juvenile characteristics enabled the brain to continue growing and developing for longer, giving infants more time and ability to learn survival skills from their mother. Hence the longer childhood of modern humans compared to other animals.
The smarter and most technologically advanced early humans survived and passed on learned skills.
Without the skills necessary to make clothes, warm housing, maintain a fire and store food, survival at this latitude would have been impossible. This has led to claims that Northern and Central Asia, rather than Africa must be called the “Cradle of Mankind”. Which also ties in with the two million year old homo erectus remains found in Java – separated from the mainland two million years ago and the finds in the Caucasus from about that time – plus the homo erectus finds in Vietnam and China dated to more than a million years ago.
Potassium-Argon dating carried out in Novosibirsk, gave a date around a million to 1.2 million years ago for the early site at Diring Yuryakh.
When I was there, in late July 1993, I met Michael Waters from the University of Texas who was taking samples of the infill in the ice wedges, to be tested in the USA. The Yakut and American archaeologists kindly posed for a photo for me on the site of the early finds.
Thermoluminescence tests of the samples carried out by Steven Forman and James Pierson in the University of Illinois Chicago, dated the site as at least 260,000 years old. The results were finally reported in Science, Vol.275, 28th February 1997.
The tools and the way they have been made and the positioning of the tools and fragments on the site – is very similar to the site dated to 600,000 years ago at Boxgrove in Sussex.
Like Diring Yuryakh (which means Deep Spring), the site at Boxgrove was also by a spring near a beach. The pool fed by the spring would have attracted the animals coming to drink the water. The hunters needed only to wait, with their equipment ready. They had wooden spears with fire-hardened points. (Some from about this period have been found in Clacton, and in Mauer, Germany). And they carried the stones with which they would knack out the freshly sharp butchering knives after the kill.
After the kill, each hunter then sat down to knack out his butchering knives. This left a characteristic distribution of stone chips.
A site dated to about 250,000 years ago which was in a similar situation to Diring Yuryakh – sandy river banks, has recently been excavated in Kent. The tools reveal advanced cognitive skills of these people who are thought to be ancestral to the Neandertals.
Another site dated to 400,000 years ago in Kent, reveals that these early humans must hae lived in sizable communities as they slaughtered elephants twice the size of present day elephants and butchered them with their flint tools to share out. They also killed and butchered other large animals such as horses. The animals were killed with wooden spears with fire-hardened points. Here is still more evidence for early humans living in the northern parts of the world, and how they survived.
Hunter gatherers favoured sandy river banks to live at least in the summer months – such a place was a rich source of food – here they were able to catch not only animals coming down to drink the water, but the large water birds like ducks and geese, and of course the fish.
Unfortunately no organic remains appear to have survived from the early levels at Diring Yuryakh. There are other sites of early humans in the Far East, not only in Siberia but in Northern China – where they also had to survive freezing winters. Recent dating showed such a site was more than a million years old. The site at Zhoukoudian near Beijing, was thought to date from half to quarter million years, but new dating techniques using aluminium and beryllium isotopes have now dated this site back to about 800,000 years ago – (which is also the date for the remains of wood dwellings in Japan). The site at Happisburgh, Norfolk, has been dated to 700,000 years ago. These early humans were more robust than modern people, had larger brains than their ancestors, but still smaller in capacity to modern brains. They built their shelters in caves around hearth fires which were maintained for hundreds of years, and were used for cooking food. At Zhoukoudian, human skulls had been used as bowls.
There is a similar winter shelter in the South of France – Terra Amata. And a summer shelter near the beach made of wooden poles. A shelter like this has been found in Japan and dated to 800,000 years ago.
In south-east Britain evidence has been found for human settlement from 700,000 years ago at the site at Pakefield, near Lowestoft, in Suffolk now on the east coast, more than 30 flint tools recently excavated. But at times when the climate got so cold that ice fields covered most of Britain – the inhabitants either went south or perished. This is no doubt a similar story to human settlement in North-East Siberia. When the weather was milder – then people moved north after the herds of edible animals – when it was colder they struggled to survive the changing conditions. And the extremes of climate chance over the centuries from steamy tropical with elephants to icy arctic with mammoths, would have been an impetus to evolution and developing technology.
Stone tools have now been found in Norfolk dating to nearly a million years ago. This shows that early humans were able to live in a cooler climate at that time and had the technology to assist them to do so. They appear to have control of fire and able to make some sort of shelter. They may have migrated south in autumn, as later hunter-gatherers in this part of the world are known to have done, as they appear to be similar to their contempararies living in Spain at that time.
It is therefore not at all impossible that more discoveries may still be made of very early humans in Siberia.
Remains of early human ancestors dated to almost two million years ago have been found in the Caucasus (Georgia), and in Eastern Java, so it is entirely possible that others were living in other places on this continent.
Another species of human was found when the DNA of the remains of a young girl taken from a finger and tooth, discovered in the Denisova cave in the Altai Montains in 2008, together with contemporary ornaments and jewellery from about 40,000 years ago. It has now been confirmed (published in Nature 22nd December 2010) that she was a member of a different species which lived in Asia at the same time that the Neanderthals lived in Europe and West Asia. Traces of this genome have now been found in people to the North and East of Australia, in Papua/New Guinea and the islands of Melanesia – as much as about 5 per cent of the Melanesian DNA. It is clear that these people were once much more widespread, are a distinct species from Neanderthals and modern humans, and more fossils are now been investigated.
DNA confirms that pre-Columbian Americans hailed from the North Pacific are at least connected genetically.
Note change of magnetic orientation in center of blast zone.
Interestingly plants in the area have abnormal chromosomes, more like you would expect around Chernobyl. Genetic abnormalities – birth defects etc. were first noticed in 1910. Also there are rare metal concentrates in the 1908 layer of peaty soil. And magnetic disturbances were recorded at Irkutsk at the time of the blast – and these are similar to those found following a British nuclear test blast at an altitude of 10 to 12 kilometres. In the centre of the blast zone there is a change in the magnetic orientation of soil particles.
As the above, from the article, indicates, this release of energy was not a simple antipodal effect; it was a blast of heated gas from the deep core of Earth.
I have strongly emphasized the responsibility of our sun for the extinction and following heating events on Earth. Could it be there is an unknown material in the Earth’s core that is utilized in such a way that it stores tremendous energy in the manner of palladium and platinum as here on Earth’s surface by storing 900x the metals volume in hydrogen? Is this the source of the theorized ‘worm hole’ in science? That the monopole cycle of the sun allows such a happenstance? Is this the source of the quest for the particle that turns mass into matter? Since our sun, Sol, is known to produce two different forms of energy, how do we determine if these energies are similar to the description of light as a wave and a particle?
This breakup was one of the most important and cataclysmic events in our planet’s history. Like the breakup of Kenorland, Rodinia’s destruction created a Snowball Earth, but that wasn’t all. Rodinia, like all the supercontinents before it, had been completely devoid of life, as all organisms still lived in the oceans. The breakup of Rodinia opened up new oceans and caused the sea beds to rise, creating shallower seas that offered the much-needed stepping stone for animals and plants to make their way onto land.
There were also more subtle effects. The breakup of Rodinia created massive volcanic explosions, which likely shot rich nutrients from beneath the Earth into the oceans. This made life considerably easier for organisms, first helping them weather the extremes of the Snowball Earth and then giving them the energy boost needed to colonize land. Without Rodinia, and certainly without plate tectonics, none of would be here today.
Three Possible Futures
Between Rodinia and Pangaea, there may have been one other supercontinent, which is known as Pannotia. Assuming it existed – and there’s still disagreement on that point – Pannotia was something of an accidental supercontinent, created by glancing collisions between tectonic plates instead of any real couplings. The Pannotia supercontinent configuration was one born of coincidence and didn’t last long, breaking up just 60 million years later and giving way to Pangaea, last of Earth’s supercontinents.
For the time being, at least. Continents are still on the move, and they’ll almost certainly continue to move until the Sun vaporizes our planet in five billion years’ time. In all likelihood, the continents will merge again to form a new supercontinent within in the next 250 million years, completing the latest turn of the supercontinent cycle. This absolutely amazing video traces the movement of the continents through the end of Rodinia to the formation of Pangaea, and then on another 250 million years into our future:
Origin of plate tectonics
In an article in Nature, vol 456, p 493, scientists report evidence in zircon deposits, that have been dated to about 4 billion years ago, from Western Australia that plate tectonics was occurring in the first 500 million years after the formation of the Earth. They concluded that the zircon crystals had formed under conditions of lower temperature and higher pressure than was expected to have prevailed at that time. They concluded that the crystals probably formed in a subduction zone. This is the first direct evidence from this time that tectonics had already begun. See link 5 below.
This final of the three global sequences shows the continents drifting apart, in reverse, from 260 million years ago to 600 million years ago. There was still nearly 4 billion years of tectonic evolution prior to where these maps begin. They were mapped using the Mollweide projection, and, in all cases, are by Ron Blakey.
This starts with the 600 my ago “multicellular forms” expansion. Note this is the cycle of what I believe is due to a monopole sun. Prior to this the planet was ice covered. Wiki says Antarctica did not move to the South Pole until the immediate start of Pangea break up at 180 my ago.
The 225 my extinction event was caused by the dragging or drawing of Zealandia to the south pole.
The 65 my extinction event was caused by the dragging or drawing of Greenland to the north pole.
These magnetic spiral events caused enormous heating thus allowing the icing of the continental masses. This would result in the long term heat over the heat produced by the monopole cycle releasing and the dipole taking hold. The heated core from the monopole cycle is disseminated during the following dipole cycle.
The ‘break ups’ of the continental masses are due to the heat energy relased.
Consider: our sun, Sol, emits two different levels of energy and science says light is two forms of energy, loose (waves) and tight (particles.) Is our sun the reason that light is both a particle and a wave?