CURRENT SCIENCE, VOL. 106, NO.4, 25 FEBRUARY 2014
Herndon states that the Earth formed from an enstatite chondrite meteorite,
“As a consequence of the high state of reduction, certain elements that have a high affinity for
oxygen, including calcium, magnesium and silicon, occur
in part in the iron alloy portion. The high state of reduction, a consequence of the Earth’s formation 25,27,49,50 , is the reason that uranium occurs in the Earth’s core.
Elements that have a high affinity for oxygen are generally incompatible in an iron alloy. Upon cooling from a high temperature, these oxyphile elements escape the iron
alloy by precipitating when thermodynamically possible.
In the Earth’s core, calcium and magnesium reacted with
sulphur at a high temperature to form CaS and MgS,
which floated to the top of the core. Silicon precipitated
by combining with nickel. The nickel silicide sank by the action of gravity and formed the inner core.”
In 2002 Raghaven proposed antineutrinos from the Earth core georeactor would be different from nuclear fission products.
understandearth.com/Herndon Current Science 51210.pdf
Whole-earth decompression dynamics
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Present day advocates
In 2005 J. Marvin Herndon postulated what he calls whole-Earth decompression dynamics, which he describes as a unified theory combining elements of plate tectonics and Earth expansion. He suggests that Earth formed from a Jupiter-sized gas giant by catastrophic loss of its gaseous atmosphere with subsequent decompression and expansion of the rocky remnant planet resulting in decompression cracks at continental margins which are filled in by basalts from mid-ocean ridges.
Another present day advocate of an expanding Earth is comics artist Neal Adams, who suggests Earth is growing and not merely expanding, and proposes his ideas within a “Growing Earth-Growing Universe” Theory.[dead link] Adams has made video animations that graphically illustrate his hypothesis, in which new mass is manufactured by a hypothesized electron/positron pair production process within the core of Earth and all celestial bodies.
Instead, these microbes can use sulfate to break down carbon from decaying biological material that sinks to the sea bottom and makes its way into the crustal aquifer, producing carbon dioxide.
Learning how these new microbes function will be important to getting a more accurate, quantified understanding of the overall global carbon cycle — a natural cycling of carbon through the environment in which it is consumed by plants, exhaled by animals and enters the ocean via the atmosphere.
This cycle is currently being disrupted by man-made carbon dioxide emissions.
‘This is the first direct account of microbial activity in these type of environments,’ Robador said, ‘and shows the potential of these organisms to respire organic carbon.’
The idea of Earth having been a Jupiter-like gas-giant follows from observations. Close-to-star gas-giant planets are observed in other planetary systems . Moreover, Earth, together with its complement of lost primordial gases, comprises a protoplanetary mass remarkably similar to the mass of Jupiter. Significantly, Herndon has shown the rock-plus-alloy kernel that is now Earth, being crushed by about 300 Earth-masses of primordial gases, would be compressed to about 64 percent of its current radius, the same compression required to yield a closed, contiguous continental shell [18-20].
Upon the subsequent removal of its protoplanetary gaseous shell, the Earth would begin to decompress , driven by the stored energy of protoplanetary compression .
The Earth appears to be approaching the terminus of its decompression. If the Earth is presently decompressing, length of day measurements should show progressive lengthening. Such measurements, made with increasing precision over the last several decades, show virtually no current lengthening , implying no current secondary decompression crack formation. The formation of secondary decompression cracks might be episodic, though, like the release of stress by major earthquakes, or secondary crack formation may have ended forever. But major secondary decompression cracks are still conspicuously evident, for example, circum-pacific trenches. And, the complementary Whole-Earth Decompression Dynamics process of basalt extrusion and crack in-filling continues at present.
Secondary crack formation and the in-filling of those cracks are complementary elements of the same Whole-Earth Decompression Dynamics process. Even in the absence of current secondary decompression crack formation, an estimate may be obtained of recent-period whole-Earth decompression by considering the amount of in-filling basalt presently being produced. The value obtained is consistent with length of day measurements . Much higher basalt extrusion rates undoubtedly have occurred in the past, as the present estimated annual percent increase in radius, if constant over the lifetime of the Earth, would have only resulted in a 2 percent increase in radius.
In J. Marvin Herndon’s view, virtually all major geological activity is the consequence of a single process: Earth-crust fragmentation – splitting the Earth’s crust to form new surface area to accommodate decompression-increased planetary volume. Crustal fragmentation, called rifting, provides all of the crucial components for petroleum-deposit formation: basin, reservoir, source, and seal. Rifting causes the formation of deep basins, as presently occurring in the Afar triangle of Northeastern Africa. Augmented by heat channeled upwards from deep within the Earth, uplift from sub-surface swelling can sequester sea-flooded lands to form halite evaporate deposits, lead to dome formation, and can make elevated land susceptible to erosion processes, thus providing sedimentary material for reservoir rock in-filling of basins. Moreover, crustal fragmentation potentially exposes deep basins to sources of abiotic mantle methane and, although still controversial, methane-derived hydrocarbons .
Well. We have a heated core releasing. Not sure about compression and dissipated gases, tho. But plate tectonics is not right.
Sooner or later we will decide on one theory as it does appear that this energy is lessening.
Looking at prehstory, P Ward’s Green Sky informative, one sees hydrogen sulfide a terror of life on planet Earth.
As I have proposed in other papers, I suggest a ‘water veil’ surrounded the Earth. Perhaps supported by magnetism. This ‘water veil’ was the first line of defense for life from cosmic rays. Perhaps the ocean floor was in existence but a dangerous place as it produced hydrogen sulfide emissions. Life at best was precarious. High above, where the mountains of air pierced the ‘water veil’, life thrived.
High oxygen levels kept the hydrogen sulfide contained to below the water veil.
The collapse of the water veil was the biggest extinction event on Earth. This is known as the Cambrian Explosion.. Superbly well adapted forms expired. Charles Wray as referenced in P Ward’s book Out Of Thin Air, proposed that life began not 600 my ago but 1 billion years ago. It is absent from the phyla due to minimal size. I agree with this molecular geneticists opinion since closeted.
Astonishing new evidence has been discovered to support life prior to the Cambrian Explosion. Comb jellies have been restored to the foundational base of life and they are neuronal! Nerve tissue requiring high energy prior to the low energy life of sponges in the Cambrian!
THERE MUST HAVE BEEN A HIGH OXYGEN CONTENT IN THE OCEANS PRIOR TO THE CAMBRIAN. AN EVENT MUST HAVE DEPRIVED THE OCEANS OF O2 .
This means the Cambrian marked the END of a previously successful exploitation of life in the world’s oceans. The reason we do not know this is that that extermination was not 60 % or 90% successful, it was 100%.
Arthropods are everywhere.. As P Ward notes, a most complex shelled form and the shellless sponges. The new animals made use of the new source of calcium for exoskeletons first, then internal supports.
Segmentation is repetition: P Ward page 61 Out of Thin Air, referencing Valentine 2004 The Origin of Phyla. This body plan repeated the oxygen acquisition apparatus necessary in a low O2 environment: Out of Thin Air page 61 Hypothesis 3.1
Where did the calcium for this new world of arthopods and molllusca come from?
I suggest this Cambrian Extinction was when the water veil collapsed upon the Earth, creating a new ocean over the existing one. The appearance of a surplus of calcium led to shell creation and utilization.
I suggest that the migration between low oxygenated deep water and high oxygenated upper water began at this time. Manipulation of shell buoyancy began at this time to allow the passage from deep to upper water to utilize food sources from the sun-lit water.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20. Calcium is a soft gray alkaline earth metal, fifth-most-abundant element by mass in the Earth‘s crust. Calcium is also the fifth-most-abundant dissolved ion in seawater by both molarity and mass, after sodium, chloride, magnesium, and sulfate.
Calcium has five stable isotopes (40Ca, 42Ca, 43Ca, 44Ca and 46Ca), plus one more isotope (48Ca) that has such a long half-life that for all practical purposes it can also be considered stable. The 20% range in relative mass among naturally occurring calcium isotopes is greater than for any other element except hydrogen and helium. Calcium also has a cosmogenic isotope, radioactive 41Ca, which has a half-life of 103,000 years. Unlike cosmogenic isotopes that are produced in the atmosphere, 41Ca is produced by neutron activation of 40Ca. Most of its production is in the upper metre or so of the soil column, where the cosmogenic neutron flux is still sufficiently strong. 41Ca has received much attention in stellar studies because it decays to 41K, a critical indicator of solar-system anomalies.
Ninety-seven percent of naturally occurring calcium is in the form of 40Ca. 40Ca is one of the daughter products of 40K decay, along with 40Ar. While K–Ar dating has been used extensively in the geological sciences, the prevalence of 40Ca in nature has impeded its use in dating. Techniques using mass spectrometry and a double spike isotope dilution have been used for K-Ca age dating.
The most abundant isotope, 40Ca, has a nucleus of 20 protons and 20 neutrons. This is the heaviest stable isotope of any element that has equal numbers of protons and neutrons. In supernova explosions, calcium is formed from the reaction of carbon with various numbers of alpha particles (helium nuclei), until the most common calcium isotope (containing 10 helium nuclei) has been synthesized.
Herndon’s theory of a georeactor proposes that the Earth was compressed by a wrap of gases later blew away by the sun’s solar wind. What metals were in this ‘wrap’? Sodium, chloride, magnesium, and sulfate? And last, calcium?
Did the precipitation of the metals out of the water veil control the Earth expansion? Were they, instead of being blown off by the sun, precipitated out? By a weakening of the magnetism allowing the water veil to exist?
The world started over with less O2 and high CO2. And with an entire new ocean overlaid on the existing water. The magnetism holding the O2 aloft ebbed and gradually the live supporting water veil lowered itself onto the surface of the continents, containing the seas. Life thrived but with lesser periodic excesses of hydrogen sulfide that rose from the sea bed and swept over the land surface. being lighter than water but heavier than air. low O2 would allow in strong sweeps of hydrogen sulfide that high levels of O2 would hold off. Carbon dioxide and methane combined to scorch the earth.
MICROBIAL LIFE HAS ALWAYS BEEN IN THE AIR IN THE WATER VEIL
Clearly the 205 and 65 my events are a repeating pattern evincing lower energy levels every occurrance.
Before the Cambrian Extinction:
It is postulated before the Cambrian event, there were as many as 3 snowball Earths going back to 800 my ago. Note that is close to the proposed 1 by beginning of life.
Three iced Earths, each about a little shorter and a little less energetic. Then the Cambrian Explosion which may have actually been an extinction event. If the land surface was iced, then where was the highly oxygenated environment that produced the comb jellies?
It would have had to have been at the pockets. Pockets reproduced today under the ice at the Arctic and Antarctic ice caps. Homes of the millions of krill at the base of the sea food chain.
It may well be krill are comparable to the comb jellies of pre Cambrian times, living off phytoplankton under the ice. Krill, naturally enough, are jawless.
Snowball Earth was prior to the Ediacaran, itself prior to the Cambrian. Were there pockets of ice that held sway thru the Ediacaran? Only to be superseded by the Cambrian?
Our geologic history passes us thru high oxygen, dips into low oxygen, followed by carbon dioxide, methane, and hydrogen sulfide washes. Placental mammals need 15-20% oxygen. So there should not have been an extinction of 65 my ago as the world was awash in O2, ergo the meteor theory.
Ten million years ago the O2 was supposedly 28%.. So this is when our world of animals became diverse. This is when we became human. Mindful humans. It would not be an exaggeration to say that we have made no progress except in numbers as the O2 has fallen significantly. And here we are awash in carbon dioxide of our own making. Cultivation of land had set the carbon in grass roots free into the atmosphere.
Science is only now asking why the Early Copper Age collapsed. What happened in the Aegean Sea that destroyed the world of Homer?
Were those Scottish towers — broches– to hold the populace when the hydrogen sulfide or carbon dioxide or methane rolled in with the sea? Were mussel shell walls 9 foot high and 300 foot wide to protect the shore living groups in N and S America from a moving wall of heavier than air gas?
Previous work showed that calcium carbonate takes multiple routes to becoming a mineral. All of the common crystal forms, including calcite (found in limestone), aragonite (found in mother-of-pearl), and vaterite (found in gallstones), crystallized from solution, often at the same time. But in some cases, droplet-like particles of uncrystallized material known as amorphous calcium carbonate, or ACC, formed first and then transformed into either aragonite or vaterite.
Those experiments, however, lacked a crucial element found in the biological world, where minerals form within an organic scaffold. For example, pearls develop in the presence of negatively charged carbohydrates and proteins from the oyster.
The team realized that controlling crystallization by attracting calcium ions to the macromolecules was not the way researchers had long thought it happened.
There are two main ways that calcium carbonate molecules might be persuaded to come together to form a mineral. One is by providing an environment where the atoms assemble in the crystal in the least energetic way possible, sort of like organizing a classroom full of schoolchildren by having them sit in seats arranged neatly in rows side-by-side in the corner of the room.
Another is via chemical binding—negatively or positively charged atoms or molecules called ions attract one another, sort of like waving popsicles in front of those kids to gather them in one spot.
Researchers had long suspected that organic scaffolds caused calcium carbonate to mineralize and find its most stable form, calcite, by creating low energy surfaces where the ions could easily arrange themselves in rows side-by-side. In fact, scientists had seen this previously with highly organized films of organic molecules.
But in this study, the polymer, like the popsicle, pulls in the calcium before minerals can form and turns it into ACC. This showed the researchers that ion binding can completely overwhelm any lower-energy advantage that crystallization on or outside of the polymer might confer.
“This is definitely another means of controlling nucleation,” said De Yoreo. “Carbonate ions follow the calcium into the globules. They don’t crystallize outside the globules because there’s not enough calcium there to make a mineral. It’s like bank robbers out for a heist. They go where the money is.”
convection, holds that the convection is driven by changes in composition inside of the Earth. The inner core started forming about 1 billion years ago, when temperatures finally dropped low enough for iron metal to freeze solid, scientists think. As iron continues to solidify, lighter elements in the metal mixture, such as oxygen and carbon, may escape and rise toward the mantle, fueling convection currents.
It’s also possible that a heat-driven magnetic field, or geodynamo, existed before the inner core formed, said Monica Pozzo, a geophysicist at University College London and leader of the 2012 modeling work.
I believe the former theory is more correct as evidence shows that the Cambrian explosion occurred in seas saturated with calcium. The first of many elements to exit the core.
This work is the result of trying to reconcile problems in the heat from Earth’s core. I expect more research will support my theory and the many others that question the current model.